The future of batteries is here: lithium-ion batteries that never go dead

In our future supercharged world, the demand for battery storage is expected to be immense, reaching upwards of 2 to 10 terawatt-hours (TWh) of annual battery production by 2030, from less than 0.5 TWh today. However, concerns are mounting as to whether key raw materials will meet this future demand. The lithium-ion r battery – the dominant technology for the foreseeable future – has a component made of cobalt and nickel, and those two metals face critical supply shortages on the global market.

After several years of research, a specialized Berkeley Lab has made significant progress in developing battery cathodes using a new class of materials that provide batteries with the same if not higher energy density than conventional lithium-ion batteries but can be made of inexpensive and abundant metals. Known as DRX, which stands for disordered rock salts with excess lithium, this novel family of materials was created less than ten years ago and allowed cathodes to be made without nickel or cobalt.



In our future amazed world, the demand for battery storage is projected to be enormous, reaching to upwards of 2 to 10 terawatt-hours (TWh) of annual battery production by 2030, from less than 0.5 TWh today. Nevertheless, issues are growing regarding whether crucial basic materials will be adequate to meet this future need. The lithium-ion battery – the dominant technology for the foreseeable future – has actually a component made from cobalt and nickel, and those two metals deal with severe supply constraints on the international market.

Now, after numerous years of research led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), scientists have made considerable progress in establishing battery cathodes using a new class of products that supply batteries with the same if not higher energy density than standard lithium-ion batteries but can be made from low-cost and abundant metals. Called DRX, which means disordered rocksalts with excess lithium, this unique family of products was developed less than 10 years back and enables cathodes to be made without nickel or cobalt.

The classic lithium-ion battery has served us well, but as we consider future needs for energy storage, its dependence on particular important minerals exposes us not only to supply-chain risks, but also environmental and social concerns. This provides lithium batteries the possibility to be the structure for sustainable battery technologies for the future.

The cathode is among the two electrodes in a battery and represent more than one-third of the expense of a battery. Presently the cathode in lithium-ion batteries uses a class of products referred to as NMC, with nickel, manganese, and cobalt as the key ingredients.

With the current NMC class, which is limited to simply nickel, cobalt, and an inactive component made of manganese, the timeless lithium-ion battery is at the end of its efficiency curve unless you transfer to brand-new cathode materials, which’s what the DRX program deals. DRX products have enormous compositional versatility – and this is very effective due to the fact that not only can you utilize all sort of abundant metals in a DRX cathode, but you can also use any type of metal to repair any problem that might come up throughout the early stages of developing new batteries. That’s why we’re so fired up.

Cobalt and nickel supply-chain threats

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has made it a top priority to find ways to minimize or get rid of the use of cobalt in batteries. “The battery market is dealing with an enormous resource crunch,” said Ceder. “Even at 2 TWh, the lower range of international demand projections, that would consume almost all of today’s nickel production, and with cobalt we’re not even close. Cobalt production today is just about 150 kilotons, and 2 TWh of battery power would need 2,000 kilotons of nickel and cobalt in some mix.”

What’s more, over two-thirds of the world’s nickel production is presently utilized to make stainless-steel. And majority of the world’s production of cobalt originates from the Democratic Republic of Congo, with Russia, Australia, the Philippines, and Cuba rounding out the leading 5 producers of cobalt.

On the other hand, DRX cathodes can use just about any metal in place of nickel and cobalt. Researchers at Berkeley Lab have actually focused on using manganese and titanium, which are both more plentiful and lower cost than nickel and cobalt.

Manganese oxide and titanium oxide expense less than $1 per kg whereas cobalt expenses about $45 per kg and nickel about $18. With DRX you have the possible to make really low-cost energy storage. At that point lithium-ion becomes unequalled and can be used all over – for lorries, the grid – and we can truly make energy storage abundant and economical.

Ordered vs. disordered

Ceder and his team established DRX materials in 2014. In batteries, the number and speed of lithium ions able to take a trip into the cathode translates into how much energy and power the battery has. In standard cathodes, lithium ions travel through the cathode product along well-defined pathways and organize themselves in between the transition metal atoms (normally cobalt and nickel) in neat, orderly layers.

What Ceder’s group found was that a cathode with a disordered atomic structure might hold more lithium – which suggests more energy – while enabling a larger series of components to function as the shift metal. They likewise found out that within that mayhem, lithium ions can easily hop around.

In 2018, the Vehicle Technologies Office in DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy offered financing for Berkeley Lab to take a “deep dive” into DRX products. In collaboration with researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and UC Santa Barbara, Berkeley Lab groups led by Ceder and Guoying Chen have actually made significant progress in enhancing DRX cathodes in lithium-ion batteries.

For example, the charge rate – or how fast the battery can charge – of these materials was initially extremely low, and its stability was also bad. The research group has actually discovered methods to deal with both of these problems through modeling and experimentation. Research studies on utilizing fluorination to improve stability have been published in Advanced Functional Materials and Advanced Energy Materials; research study on how to allow a high charging rate was recently released in Nature Energy.

Given that DRX can be made with several elements, the researchers have also been dealing with which aspect would be best to utilize, striking the sweet area of being plentiful, low-cost, and providing great efficiency. “DRX has now been manufactured with nearly the entire table of elements,” Ceder stated.

This is science at its finest – basic discoveries that will serve as the bedrock of systems in future houses, lorries, and grids. What has made Berkeley Lab so successful in battery innovation for years now is our combination of breadth and depth of know-how – from essential discovery to characterization, synthesis, and manufacturing, as well as energy markets and policy research. Partnership is crucial – we partner with market and beyond to fix real-world problems, which in turn assists galvanize the world-leading science we do at the Lab.

Quick progress

New battery materials have generally taken 15 to 20 years to commercialize; Ceder believes progress on DRX materials can be accelerated with a larger team. “We’ve made terrific progress in the last three years with the deep dive,” Ceder stated. “We’ve pertained to the conclusion that we’re ready for a bigger group, so we can involve individuals with a more varied set of skills to really refine this.”

An expanded research group could move quickly to deal with the staying concerns, including enhancing the cycle life (or the number of times the battery can be recharged and discharged over its life time) and enhancing the electrolyte, the chemical medium that enables the circulation of electrical charge between the cathode and anode. Given that being established in Ceder’s laboratory, groups in Europe and Japan have also launched big DRX research study programs.

Advances in battery innovations and energy storage will require continued breakthroughs in the essential science of products. Berkeley Lab’s knowledge, distinct facilities, and abilities in sophisticated imaging, calculation, and synthesis allow us to study products at the scale of atoms and electrons. We are well poised to accelerate the development of promising materials like DRX for clean energy.

Are you looking for protective coatings? ArmorThane is our go to company for many materials but more than any other product, polyurea is the greatest product on earth. If you would like to have some questions answered or would like to know how you can become a professional applicator, click here.

choose an epoxxy

How To Choose An Epoxy

Tabletop surface coating, tank coating, quick coating, winter coating, coat of arms…. I mean, it just feels like there are thousands of epoxies out there. How do you choose which one you go with? Which one do you choose for which project? That’s a lot to consider.

Here’s the secret.

All the epoxies that you see out there. Well, 95 percent of them boil down to just four different types. Let me clear the air and explain each one.

In order to explain this best, let’s talk fruit!

I’ve made a little graph quickly for me to better explain everything…we’ve got an apple, an orange, a banana and a bunch of grapes. Each one of these is going to represent a type of epoxy.

Also on the other side, you’re going to see a pie, a beautiful glass of orange juice, some bread and, well, a grape juice. Now, keep in mind, all of these are fruits, but they’re all very, very different and have different applications. An apple is delicious in pies and orange. Well, that’s a good way to start the morning. Bananas makes my all time favorite bread, banana bread. If you’d like to send me some banana bread, I’m not going to be mad at you.

And grapes. Well, grapes make grape juice. Yes, these are all fruits, but not each one of these works for all the other applications that we have over here. For instance, I don’t want anything to do with banana pie and I don’t want to deal with grape bread either. They would just get hot and it would be like a nasty Ushery fruity situation. That sounds terrible.

All right. So each one of these fruits, well, it coordinates to a certain type of epoxy.

If we look at our apples and we can call that our surface coating , you might have heard of this as a tabletop. I’ll represent that with T tabletop or orange. Let’s call that are more UV resistant. That’s going to have that extra juice in there to make sure it doesn’t yellow nearly as quickly as our bananas. We can call that our quick hearing. And then lastly, we have our grapes on here. Let’s call that our deep pores, these four types of epoxy.

That’s it. I mean, that’s 99 percent of the epoxy that you see out there on Amazon online and all these YouTube videos. They’re one of these four types. So what are these four types of poxes good for and what are they not good for? Well, for surface coatings and tabletop a poxes tumblers counters. That stuff is perfect for it’s made for that for UV resistant stuff. That’s where art comes into play. Photo encapsulation stuff you want to protect and have it not yellow.

So quickly now quick curing epoxies are perfect for sealing wood for fast coatings, when you need to keep going on a project and you don’t want to wait twenty four hours for something to cure. And then deposit boxes are obviously perfect for river tables, large castings, and you still want beautiful clarity. Now these four types of epoxy are great, but this isn’t enough information. I don’t think. I think you need more details. I’m not going to be able to talk through all the other competitive products out there because, well, I don’t have all those details, but I do have details.

So let’s use our products as the examples. take a look at this board i have written on and I’ll talk through these products. All right. Here’s our chart. Here are our four epoxies. Clear cast. That’s our surface coating or tabletop amazing clear cast. Plus, that’s our UV resistant one amazing quick coat. That’s our fast curing.

And then amazing D for you guessed it hard for possie on this side. I’ve got some attributes that we should talk about. Depth, speed, air release, UV resistance, hardness and then applications again, because that’s really why you’re here. All right. So for depth’s, for amazing clear cast, an amazing clearcuts. Plus, you’re looking at about three eights of an inch, not quite half of an inch for amazing quick coat. It’s an eighth of an inch.

Remember, that’s a fast setting epoxy. So we’re dealing with more exothermic there. Camper’s deep and for making deeper. Well, that’s two inches. That is ideal. All right. Let’s talk speed through you off didn’t on that. I definitely do. You got you. All right. Let’s talk speed for amazing clear cast, an amazing clear cast. Plus, you’re looking about about a twenty four hour tax free time. Depends on your temperature. So always keep that noted.

Allow four to six hours. That’s fast. Hence quick coat, although your pour can take time. Twenty four to seventy two to get that tax free. Depends on your temperature again. Is this fully cured. No, that’s still five to seven days or three to five days depending on your product. Next up, air release. Here’s the thing. I’m going to shoot you straight. We formulate all of these to have amazing air release for their applications.

I’ve put the best over here for amazing deep for so that you realize a two inch pour is going to take a lot of air release in order to get that crystal clear. That’s why medicore is water thin so that the bubbles can get out of there. But keep in mind, it’s water thin. It’s not going to do a good job coating a tumbler. Go ahead, pour water on your tumbler and let me know how much of it stays on UV resistance.

I think you can predict this one. The best on this board is definitely the UV resistant epoxy. Wonder why. I will say, though, we do formulate every one of our poxes, though, to have fantastic UV resistance as much as possible within that formulation. No, but if you’re looking for that extra juice, you want to ask plus second to last. Let’s talk about hardness. That’s sure. Hardness on the D scale.

What is that?

It’s a lot of acronyms are 80 on the short scale. That means that they’re really hard and really durable, but not that far behind is amazing clearcuts. Plus with seventy five dollars, these things are as hard as like construction work or hard hats. There’s nothing soft here, folks.

Different Types of Industrial Epoxy Coating For Floors – Epoxy Coating  Specialists

Why should you care about hardness? Well, the fact that we’ve made these really, really strong just means that it’s going to be a lot more durable. It’s got to be harder to dig up your projects and scuffling. Last but not least, Lippestad assistance is the application. When should you use this stuff? Right. So for a surface coating epoxy like Almazan Clear cast, this is for, believe it or not, surface coating, small castings, countertops, stuff where you’re going to pour on a flat surface or around a surface that you’re going to rotate consistently and get a beautiful thane coating for amazing clearcuts.

Plus, we’re looking at art coatings, photo encapsulation, something where you want that project to last as long as possible because it has maybe sentimental value memories to it or it’s going to be outside a lot like a Tumblr where that you’re taking around here. That’s great. If you need that extra UV resistance for Amazing Quico, this is where we’re sealing wood for me. I use this to seal up a board before I pour a deeper foxe on it.

That means that I’m not going to have any air bubble issues or moisture issues. And since it’s only going to take four to six hours, I can keep my project moving for amazing deeper. Well, I hope it’s obvious by now, but River Table’s large castings things where you’re really pouring thick and you need that extra time for the air to release and you need the extra time to make sure it doesn’t exothermic turn yellow and cross. So there it is.

Now, you know, the four different types of epoxy when to use each one and kind of what are the features and benefits of each. If you want to see more content like this, if you’ve got specific questions, I want to know about them. Put them in the comments below and answer them.


New Polyurethane Designed to Degrade for Reuse

Polyurethane is utilized in a wide range of materials, including paints, foam mattresses, and insulation. These various applications produce large amounts of waste. A team at the University of Illinois has produced a method to break down polyurethane waste and turn it into other beneficial products.
The researchers will publish their findings at the American Chemical Society National Meeting and Exposition.
In the U.S. alone, 1.3 million tons of polyurethane waste is produced each year. The waste usually ends up in landfills or is burned, a process that requires a large energy input and creates toxic byproducts.
“We want to solve the waste problem by repurposing polyurethane,” said Ephraim Morado, a graduate student in the laboratory of chemistry professor Steven Zimmerman, who led the study.
Polyurethanes are made of two elements that are hard to break down: isocyanates, which are composed of nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen, and alcohol groups called polyols.
“The polyol is usually petroleum-based and is not degradable,” Morado said. The team combined a more easily degraded chemical unit to address this problem, an acetal, to the polyol. And because polyurethanes are water-resistant, the researchers developed an acetal unit that degrades in solvents other than water.
“When we add a combination of trichloroacetic acid and dichloromethane, the material swells and rapidly degrades at room temperature,” Morado said.
The degradation results that are formed can then be repurposed to new materials. For example, the researchers transformed elastomers—a type of polyurethane used in rubber bands, packaging, and car parts—into adhesive glue.
“One of the challenges with our method is that the starting material is costly,” Zimmerman said. “We are trying to find a safer, cheaper way to achieve this. Our second obstacle will be to get a patent and find someone interested in marketing it.”
The researchers are experimenting with the same technique on other polyurethane substances. They also hope to use milder solvents, such as vinegar, to carry out the degradation.
“The polyurethane materials have complex properties based on the chemical composition of the isocyanate,” Zimmerman said. “We can improve the structure of the acetal accordingly.”

self eating

Scientists have developed a new synthetic plastic that could potentially solve our ever-growing plastics problem.

Plastic. Humanity is producing more and more every single day. The problem is, once it’s made, it sticks around….forever. It is currently very difficult to break down plastic bottles into their chemical constituents to make new ones from old ones, meaning more new plastic is being created from oil each year.

But now, scientists from UC Berkeley have produced a new form of plastic that consumes itself.

You read that right!
It eats itself!

This is the plastic when it’s produced. And this is what it looks like just three days later after it has been treated. The new plastic is manufactured with an enzyme that reacts when exposed to water and heat, causing it to begin breaking itself down.
The super-enzyme, derived from bacteria that naturally developed the ability to eat plastic, enables the full recycling of the bottles. Scientists believe merging it with enzymes that break down cotton could also allow mixed-fabric clothing to be recycled. Today, millions of tons of such clothing are either dumped in landfills or incinerated.

The super-enzyme was engineered by linking two separate enzymes, both found in the plastic-eating bug discovered at a Japanese waste site in 2016. The researchers revealed an engineered version of thefirst enzyme in 2018, which started breaking down the plastic in a few days. But the super-enzyme gets to work six times quicker.
This is a trajectory towards trying to make faster enzymes that are more industrially relevant. But it’s also one of those stories about learning from nature and then bringing it into the lab.

If you were worried about plastic-based clothes like polyesters melting off you while exercising, don’t. The material can withstand short exposures to heat and slight dampness.


Polymers in our everyday life

Polymers, a word that we hear quite often, is vital, and one can not think of life without it. Polymers, a large class of materials, consists of numerous small molecules named monomers linked together to form long chains and are used in many items in our everyday lives.

People have used polymers in our lives for many years, but we did not fully comprehend just how abundant it was until World War II. There were moderately few materials offered for the production of the products required for civilized life. Steel, glass, wood, stone, brick, and concrete for most of the building and construction, cotton, wool, jute, and a few other agricultural products for clothes or material manufacture were used.

Polymers World

The rapid increase in demand for the amount of produced products has brought about new materials. These new materials are polymers, and their impact on the present way of living is virtually incalculable.

Products made from polymers are all around us: clothing made from artificial fibers, polyethylene cups, fiberglass, nylon bearings, plastic bags, polymer-based paints, epoxy glue, polyurethane foam cushion, silicone heart valves, and Teflon-coated cookware. The list is practically endless.

The word “polymer,” or often “macromolecule,” is derived from classical Greek poly meaning “numerous,” and meres suggesting “parts.” The polymer molecule has a high molecular weight (between 10 000-1000 000 g/mol) and includes several structural units usually bound together by covalent bonds.1,3. Polymers are obtained through.

The Chain reaction of monomers. Monomers can react with another molecule from the same type or another key in suitable conditions to form the polymer chain. This procedure in nature has resulted in natural polymers, while artificial polymers are man-made. Polymers have been around us in the

Polymers have been around since the beginning of time. However, man-made polymeric products have been analyzed since the middle of the 19th century. Today, the polymer market has quickly developed and is now larger than the copper, steel, aluminum, and some other industries combined.

Both natural and synthetic polymers are remarkably connected in the support and facilitation of human life. They are responsible for life itself, medication, nutrition, interaction, transport, irrigation, container, clothing, tape-recording history, structures, highways, etc. It is hard to think of a human society without synthetic and natural polymers. In our ever-increasing technological world, science plays an essential role in offering services to critical problems of food, clean and plentiful water, air, energy, and health. Understanding polymers and related texts offers both the details and insights of their better understanding in our life. The information gathered from the basic science courses leads to comprehending the polymers. This info includes factual, theoretical, and useful principles presented in science. It is of use to those who wish to be just well educated and like to pursue medicine, engineering, physics, chemistry, biomedical sciences, law, service, and so on 2,3.

Artificial and natural polymers could be used in the form of inorganic and natural polymers; coatings, elastomers, adhesives, blends, plastics, fibers, caulks, ceramics, and composites. The basic principles applied to one polymer category are applied to all other classifications and a few easy fundamental guidelines. These basics are integrated into the fabric of the polymer texts.4.

It is not surprising that nearly all product researchers and more than half of all chemists and chemical engineers, a large number of physicists, fabric technologists, mechanical engineers, pharmacists, and other scientific groups are associated with research and development projects polymers. Also, the fact that pharmacy, biomedicine, molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics are the fields that polymers and polymer chemistry play a significant role in advancing their brand-new areas. The study of massive particles is one of the most attended and fastest-growing fields of science. For that reason, it appears that polymer is not a specialized interdisciplinary or branch of chemistry. Rather, it is a specialized, broad, and unique discipline covering some chemistry and several other clinical fields. The fields of science have always become extremely active when research groups trained in one specialized field turn their interests to a related field. This has always been and, in the future, will be particularly real in polymer research study works. The requirement in the polymer is the application of concepts and chemistry knowledge and methods to complicated products and macromolecules. This is a basic task, and it requires the absolute best manner ins which chemistry might offer.6.

Perhaps polymer chemistry, more than any other research study field, crosses over and cuts the conventional lines of all branches of chemistry, biology, physics, product, engineering, pharmacy, and even medication. And a beginner to polymer science needs enough ability to mix the huge understanding from all fields mentioned above. Therefore, this article has been written to show the importance and critical functions of polymers in human life.


Off-the-shelf materials lead to self-healing polymers

Look out, super glue and paint thinner. Thanks to brand-new dynamic materials developed at the University of Illinois, removable paint and self-healing polymers quickly could be family products.

U. of I. materials science and engineering teacher Jianjun Cheng, graduate student Hanze Ying and postdoctoral scientist Yanfeng Zhang released their operate in the journal Nature Communications.

” The crucial advantage of using this material is that it’s catalyst-free and low-temperature, and can be healed numerous times,” Cheng said. “These are very good products for internal cracks. This can recover the fracture prior to it triggers significant issues by propagating.”

Other self-healing material systems have concentrated on solid, strong products. Nevertheless, the brand-new research study utilizes softer elastic materials made from polyurea, among the most extensively utilized classes of polymers in durable goods such as paints, coatings, elastics and plastics.

After the polymer is cut or torn, the scientists push the two pieces back together and let the sample sit for about a day to heal– no extra chemicals or drivers required. The products can heal at room temperature level, however the process can be sped up by treating at a little greater temperature levels (37 degrees Celsius, or about body temperature level). The polymer bonds back together on the molecular level nearly as highly as before it was cut. In fact, tests found that some recovered samples, stretched to their limits, tore in a new location rather than the recovered spot, evidence that the samples had healed totally.

The researchers utilize commercially readily available components to create their polymer. By slightly tweaking the structure of the particles that join up to make the polymer, they can make the bonds between the particles longer so that they can more quickly pull apart and stick back together– the key for healing. This molecular-level re-bonding is called dynamic chemistry.

Researcher Hanze Ying demonstrates the making and self-healing residential or commercial properties of a brand-new dynamic polymer. Credit: Anne Lukeman
Dynamic chemistry has actually been checked out in some other polymers, however those materials tend to be for specialized applications or lab settings, rather than the traditional polymers used commercially. By focusing on customer products and utilizing easily available active ingredients, the scientists hope that manufacturers could easily integrate dynamic products.

” We just buy business materials and blend them together, no elegant controls or unique device,” said Cheng. “It’s a really easy, low-cost, affordable procedure. Anybody can do this on any scale.”

Now that they’ve established the chemistry needed, the scientists are checking out how dynamic polyurea might boost various applications. For instance, they could tweak the mix so that a polyurethane coating or paint could be detachable.

” In some areas, when it’s not essential for the coating to be long-term and you desire it to be removable, this chemistry might be applied to existing coating materials to make it reversible,” Cheng stated. “In basic, polyurea and polyurethane are widely used. This chemistry might modify existing materials to make them more dynamic, healable.”


Polymer Coatings For Water Treatment Equipment

The purpose of water treatment is to cleanse drinking water to satisfy federal government guidelines for quality and produce wastewater effluent that has a minimized effect on the environment. Water and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) use different phases to speed up the natural processes that purify water and wastes. Whatever methods, equipment, or technologies are used, pumps are a necessary element for moving raw water, waste water, sludge, and effluent within various processes. With high global demands for energy, the industry is looking for pumping systems that take full advantage of performance, reliability, and cost-effectiveness.

Decreases in pump efficiency can be caused by mechanical, volumetric, and hydraulic losses. Mechanical loss is related to moving elements of a pump, such as bearings and glands. Volumetric loss refers to leakage of fluid from the discharge side of the pump to the suction side. Hydraulic loss is triggered by the frictional forces developed in between the fluid and the walls of the hydraulic passage, velocity, and the modification of the fluid direction. Therefore, smooth pump walls reduce circulation variations and, subsequently, the energy required for the pump to move the fluid. This post goes over the use of state-of-the-art lining innovations to increase the performance of pumps while protecting their internal surfaces from disintegration and deterioration.

Result of Pump Surface Roughness
The two categories of pumps most typically used at WWTPs are the centrifugal and positive displacement pumps. Centrifugal pumps are more common since they are easy and safe to run under a broad series of conditions. The operating concept of moving a fluid by means of mechanical actions can be detrimental to the internal components of the pump. For instance, centrifugal pumps are vulnerable to damage and efficiency destruction by cavitation, where vapor bubbles form in the low-pressure region directly behind the turning impeller vanes. The collapse of these bubbles can damage the impeller and deteriorate the pump casing.5 Pressure drop control in pumps is typically limited, and cavitation can not be prevented. Over time, cavitation can produce severe erosion-corrosion issues.

The roughness of pump surfaces impacts the fluid flow.

As the roughness increases, the laminar circulation becomes unstable and shifts into rough circulation. Erosion-corrosion mechanisms are intensified under unstable circulation conditions. Surface area flaws in the form of small protrusions or anxieties, such as corrosion pits, deposits, and weld beads, can trigger disturbed flow on a smaller sized scale. Although small, such problems suffice to start the erosion-corrosion processes in the form of impingement, cavitation, and even entrainment in the presence of solid particles.6 Under these situations, energy losses will occur and lead to more decrease in effectiveness of the pumping system.

Alternatives for Pump Efficiency Improvements.
Standard options to mitigate the unfavorable repercussions of turbulent flow programs include devices design adjustments to reduce hydrodynamic forces and using exotic, erosion-resistant alloys as materials of building and construction. However, due to cost, relieve of construction, and accessibility, the products of construction most frequently picked are cast iron, carbon steel (CS), or stainless steel (SS). The resistance of these conventional products to rust and disintegration is relatively low; and in the case of SS, localized corrosion can still take place when its protective passivation movie is damaged or exposed to chloride environments.

Another method to minimize erosion-corrosion and enhance performance is to isolate the metal surface area from its contact environment with a lining. Numerous benefits of this option can be mentioned:8.

1. Lining pumps made of CS with fit-for-service coatings provides an economical approach of improving the rust resistance of standard materials when compared to using corrosion-resistant alloys or cladding.

2. Lining products are readily offered if needed, even at short notice.

3. Lining products do not add substantial weight to the pumps. Sometimes, linings can facilitate a reduction in weight because of a reduced corrosion allowance for the metal based upon lower awaited disintegration and deterioration rates.

4. Efficient lining application methods enable much shorter project preparations and less equipment downtime.

A wide variety of corrosion-resistant coating innovations can be used for securing the interiors of pumps. Some of them include glass flake, thermosetting polyurethane, and nonsolvent-free epoxy coatings. Making use of a few of these coatings is limited by the presence of volatile organic substances (VOCs) in their structure, which may trigger health and safety issues. Others have bad mechanical adhesion and lowered resistance to erosion and rust. Due to technological advances in protective commercial linings and repair composite materials, it is now possible to utilize polymeric materials for coating systems with exceptional resistance to erosion-corrosion and cavitation. These high-technology linings can efficiently boost pump efficiency.

FIGURE 1 Pump efficiency curve.

Coatings Designed with a Unique Combination of Properties.
Pump efficiency curve.State-of-the-art coating innovation has resulted in coatings with special chemistry. Enhanced erosion-corrosion resistance, hydrophobicity, and hydraulic smoothness are qualities that allow high energy effectiveness and optimum pump efficiency to be achieved. These coatings are essentially created as a blend of lube agents and abrasion-resistant fillers. The fillers are utilized to reduce erosion-corrosion wear, whereas a mix of various amines offers a smooth finish and low electronic affinity towards water molecules. As a result, the beginning of rough circulation is delayed, which consequently lowers skin friction.

These coatings are solvent-free, epoxy-based, and free of VOCs so health and wellness concerns are minimized and item shrinkage is avoided. Coating systems can be applied in fairly thin layers to circumvent any flow restriction issues. Linings have been reported with a surface roughness of 0.09 µm vs. 1.19 µm for polished SS. The ultra-smooth surface, in addition to self-levelling and hydrophobic properties, lessen turbulence and surface area tension.

These high-performance coatings were tested for service physical fitness in alignment with globally recognized approaches such as those supplied by ISO, NACE International, and ASTM. Such coatings have actually reported adhesion worths greater than 31 MPa (4,500 psi) on grit-blasted moderate steel when tested in accordance with ASTM D45419 and ISO 4624.10 Atlas cell testing, in accordance with NACE TM0174,11 is likewise utilized to figure out the suitability of these coatings in immersion service. Chemical testing using ISO 2812-112 is another test required for assessing the resistance of coatings to the range of chemicals found in the WWTP. Some of these chemicals include chlorine, ferric chloride (FeCl3), and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO).

In addition, these protective coatings can be checked for potable water contact in agreement with the U.K. Drinking Water Inspectorate.

Pump Efficiency.
The efficiency of a centrifugal pump is normally explained by a graph that plots the pressure produced by the pump over a series of flow rates (determined in terms of head). Likewise, its performance is consisted of on a common pump performance curve. The effectiveness of a pump is the ratio of the pump’s fluid power to the pump shaft power. A centrifugal pump has a best effectiveness point (BEP) where it runs the most cost-effectively in regards to both energy effectiveness and upkeep. Continually running a pump at its BEP is difficult due to the fact that systems typically have changing demands.4.

FIGURE 1 Pump efficiency curve.
Power vs. flow curve.

A pump efficiency test in 1989– carried out by the National Engineering Laboratory (then part of the United Kingdom’s Department of Trade and Industry), a global reference in fluid circulation screening that represents the most thorough pump test facilities worldwide– recognized performance enhancement of a centrifugal pump that was lined.14 The tests were carried out in a single stage, end-suction centrifugal pump with 10-in (254-mm) suction and discharge branches. The pump (in an uncoated condition) performed at 1,300 rpm, had a capability of 875 m3/h (5.55 countless gallons per day [mgd] at 26.5 m head, and total peak performance of 83.5%.14 The exact same pump was then protected with a lining to demonstrate that boosted pump effectiveness could be attained.

The coating examined was a solvent-free, two-component epoxy system, specially developed for improving the performance of fluid-handling devices and securing metal surfaces from the effects of erosion-corrosion. This coating was used in 2 colors to validate the 2nd coat had actually been evenly used and completely covered the first coat, and to make future assessments much easier to assess. The two pump tests were carried out in a normal closed-loop system using the same protocol, with a series of flow, head, and power readings taken throughout a wide circulation range. The pump effectiveness curve, developed with calibrated test instrumentation and traceable to nationwide requirements, was then plotted (Figure 1).

FIGURE 3 Erosion-corrosion results to the impeller.

Checking results of the covered pump showed a 6% increase at peak performance (Figure 1). Substantially, there was little change to the pump head/flow characteristics, meaning the coating increased the pump performance while maintaining the original head/flow properties. The power decrease of 5.1 kWh was attained at responsibility point.

A state federal government water and wastewater treatment business in Bahia, Brazil employed a lining to safeguard a centrifugal pump and increase its performance. This water and wastewater business is responsible for operating and keeping 431 water treatment systems and 94 wastewater plants throughout more than 360 municipalities in Bahia. The water treatment plants supply drinking water for 11.9 million individuals, whereas the wastewater plants provide sanitation to ~ 4.8 million people.15.

FIGURE 4 Coated impeller.
Coated impeller

.In 2006, the plant maintenance personnel of among these plants discovered anomalies in their process, primarily due to mechanisms of erosion-corrosion and cavitation in the pumping system. The possession, a Worthington † split-case centrifugal pump with a capability of 1.080 m3/h (6.84 mgd), was installed in the pump system to catch raw water from the São Francisco River for treatment and shipment to the neighborhood. This pump was experiencing localized metal loss and corrosion, mostly in the volute case and impeller (Figure 3). Numerous repair options were thought about by the asset owner. The choice was made to utilize a 100% solids epoxy-based lining to secure the harmed internal parts of the pump. The work was performed by authorized applicators following the lining maker’s product guidelines for usage, as follows:.

– The malfunctioning parts were abrasive blasted to achieve surface cleanliness requirements of NACE No. 2/SSPC-SP 1016 and ISO 8501-1 (Sa 2 1/2),17 with a minimum typical profile of 3 mils (75 µm).

– The surface areas were checked for salt contamination and dealt with accordingly.

– The surfaces were washed down with appropriate cleaner/degreaser to remove residual blasting debris and any grease impurities.

– The thickness of the pump wall was restored according to the original equipment producer’s pump repair standards using paste-grade epoxy products.

– The protective coating was by hand applied in 2 coats of contrasting colors to obtain a minimum total dry movie density.

– The lining was allowed to cure for chemical service (Figures 4 and 5) and more inspected for connection.

FIGURE 5 Coated volute.
Coated volute

The pump was returned to service. After 6 years of continuous use, the pump was opened for evaluation by upkeep workers. Some erosion wear and metal loss from moderate cavitation could be seen on the volute surface area (Figure 6), but the lining remained in good condition. The plant supervisors were satisfied with the results. The pump had been protected against cavitation and corrosion for 6 years. The procedure is now part of their preventive upkeep program.

The pump likewise was tested to examine both the energy intake and the cost of power intake savings associated with running a more efficient pump. Direct measurement of motor current was chosen to properly evaluate improvement of the pump’s effectiveness. Electric current readings were taken on the motor of an uncoated and covered pump under the exact same conditions. The readings for the uncoated pump revealed an average of 72 A with 440 V, whereas readings reported an average of 66 A for the layered pump. The results showed an amperage decrease of 8.33% and a consequent reduction in the power usage, because these variables are directly proportional.

These outcomes showed that this coating technology efficiently added to decreasing losses by safeguarding the surface versus the impacts of erosion-corrosion and cavitation. Creating a smooth, hydrophobic finish also resulted in a reduction in energy consumption. Ever since, the exact same efficiency-enhancing polymeric coating was applied to eight of the 12 pumps at that pump station. The results can be reproduced for other types of pumps.

FIGURE 6 Erosion areas on the volute after six years of service.
Erosion locations on the volute after 6 years of service.

The polymeric coating innovation proved to be a suitable alternative for improving the performance of the pump, as well as protecting it from deterioration, with very little maintenance work throughout its designated life time. The technology is recommended for protecting pump surface areas and boosting pump effectiveness within water and wastewater plants.

As anticipated, cavitation effects were not eradicated however minimized; nevertheless, the boost in fluid flow efficiency represented an instant saving in power usage, one of a lot of significant business expenses for water and wastewater treatment plants.


POLYMER STUDY: What Is Polyurea?

Polyurea is a synthetic polymer obtained from the response of a diamine with a diisocyanate, polymerization response is really comparable to polyurethane one, but in case of polyurea, resulting link is a “urea”, so it is called polyurea.
By this link we get from creating molecular structure an insensitivity to moisture, hence making the polyurea (if pure) the very best waterproof membrane.
We state “if pure” due to the fact that in the market there are numerous polyurea-called “hybrid”, which are a mixture between polyurea and polyurethane. These membranes do not have the same mechanical properties as the pure polyurea (elongation, abrasion resistance, etc …). The following chart plainly shows the distinction.

Pure Polyurea

What is Polyurea
Isocyanate + Polyamine

Molecular structure entirely insensitive to wetness. Pure polyurea does not react with water making it the very best waterproofing material.


Hybrid Polyurea

Isocyanate + Polyol + Polyamine

A polyol participates in the molecular structure of the hybrids, which gives it properties halfway in between pure polyurea and polyurethane.



Isocyanate + Catalyst + Polyol

Polyurethane needs a driver in its structure which adds an extra molecular bond. Excellent waterproofing product however with lower mechanical properties than polyureas.

Polyurea types (pure).
Depending upon polyurea chemical structure, it could be of 2 types: aliphatic or aromatic.
The fragrant polyurea is more solid and not withstands UV exposure, triggering some discoloration and loss of shine, which is not advised for applications “deal with side”. On the contrary, aliphatic polyurea is resistant to UV radiation and it is excellent as a finish coat, because of its raw materials high expenses, it makes it a polyurea of greater rate variety.

Polyurea application.
The application of the polyurea is usually performed in hot state; for that is needed a hot spraying plural parts (2-components) equipment under high pressure (type GRACO Reactor E-XP2). This devices can offering a pressure of 2700 psi at a temperature of 70 ° C. This sort of polyurea dry just in 3 or 4 seconds as soon as applied.
There is likewise the called cold polyurea or polyurea cold applied, it not requires a spraying equipment since it is processed manually utilizing a rubber float, spatula or trowel. This polyurea takes longer to dry than faster one hot sprayed.

Benefits and Properties of Polyurea.
There are lots of advantages and properties of polyurea membrane, then the most important detail:.

membrane without joints or overlaps and of optimum flexibility – as much as 600% elongation.

Polyurea uses.
Polyurea properties make it a product for applications where waterproofing, defense and resilience are fundamental. The limitless possibilities for polyurea pigmentation are a clear benefit in those applications where the visual aspect plays an essential role. The versatility and adhesion of the polyurea enable use in practically any application requirement waterproofing, coating and/ or protection can include: waterproofing and corrosion security on steel, concrete and many other supports.

Polyurea varieties.
At Polymer World, we are continuously innovating in the development and advancement of new items and the improvement of existing formulations. Currently, we have different coatings according to your needs. Contact us for more info.

monomer-vs-polymer (2)

Monomers Vs. Polymers: What’s The Difference?

In the world of material sciences and plastics, the difference between monomer vs polymer is often confused, if not confusing. Because the terms relate to plastic, they are seen in the broader, wider range of malleable synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are molded into solid objects. Nevertheless, synthetic monomers and polymers played a significant role in the history of plastics, revolutionizing material sciences in the early twentieth century and consequently emerging to play a prominent role in the modern industrial economy. The ability of chemists to engineer synthetic molecules to achieve a desired set of properties such as electrical conductivity, heat resistance, impact resistance, strength, stiffness, and density changed the world.

So what’s the difference between monomers and polymers?

The main difference between monomers and polymers is that the former is the necessary component that forms the latter. Polymers are comprised of a chain of monomers through a process known as polymerization.


A monomer is a single atom, small molecule, or molecular fragment that, when bonded together with identical and similar types of monomers, form a larger, macromolecule known as a polymer. Monomers bond together to form polymers during a chemical reaction called polymerization as the molecules link together by sharing electrons.

The word monomer comes from the Greek word “mono,” meaning “one,” and “meros,” meaning “part.” As the prefix in monomer implies, think of monomers as a single, simpler basic unit that of and in itself is of lesser importance, but combined, they are the building blocks that form into a greater complex structure. Not to be confused with synthetic monomers, bio-monomers combined form biopolymers, perform various functions in the body and natural environment. In material science, synthetic monomers joined together in a repeated chain form synthetic polymers by forming chemical bonds or binding supramolecularly.

Because there are so many different monomers that can be combined in numerous ways, there are many kinds of plastics. Examples of the monomers that are found in many plastics include organic compounds like:

  • Ethylene
  • Propylene
  • Styrene
  • Phenol
  • Acetonitrile
  • Formaldehyde
  • Ethylene glycol
  • Vinyl chloride (which polymerizes into polyvinyl chloride PVC)


A polymer is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of small repeating singular molecular structural units called monomers. The repeating molecular units are joined together chemically through covalent bonds.

The word polymer comes from the Greek “poly” (many) and “meros” (part). As with monomers, a polymer may be a natural (biopolymers) or synthetic macromolecule comprised of repeating units. In material sciences, the terms ‘polymer’ and ‘plastic’ are used interchangeably. However, polymers are a much larger class of molecules that includes plastics and have a broad range of properties that can perform various functions.

While anything plastic is the most common example of a synthetic polymer, broadly speaking, there are for main categories of polymers – thermoplastics and thermosets, elastomers and synthetic fibers. All are found in a wide range of both consumer and industrial products:

  • Nylons in textiles and fabrics
  • Teflon in non-stick pans
  • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in pipes
  • pDCPD
  • Tires
  • Electrical switches
  • Rubber
  • Styrofoam cups
  • Disposable PET bottles